Being Maasai: An ethnographic bibliography

Here’s the state of the majority of our library related to the Maasai and Samburu. At the bottom, we’ve appended a shorter list of ethnography and linguistics related to other Kenyan groups and languages (Swahili, Turkana, Kikuyu, Kalenjin). Maa/Sampurr linguistics have their own bibliography.

There are a few items which we lack (either copies are unavailable or not yet afforded); those are indicated by an asterisk. Resources on the cultural practices of circumcision and FGM have not been included for reasons of space.

Being Maasai

Allegretti, Antonia. “The Religious (and Political) Materiality of Development among Christian Maasai in Contemporary Tanzania.” Chapter 11 in Development in East Africa, edited by Piotr Cichocki and Maciej Ząbek, 325–355. Vol. 3. in Cultural Shift in East Africa: Developments, Biographies, (Im)materialities. Warsaw: Institute of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, 2018.

Anderson, David M. and Douglas H. Johnson. “Diviners, Seers and Prophets in Eastern Africa.” Africa 61/3 (1991): 293–399.

Archambault, Caroline A. “Pain with Punishment and the Negotiation of Childhood: A n Ethnographic Analysis of Children’s Rights Processes in Maasailand.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 79/2 (2009): 282-302

Caroline S. Archambault. “‘The pen is the spear of today’: (re)producing gender in the Maasai schooling setting.” Gender and Education 29/6 (2017): 731–747.

Archambault, Caroline A. “Re-creating the commons and re-configuring Maasai women’s roles on the rangelands in the face of fragmentation.” International Journal of the Commons10/2 (2016): 728–746.

Århem, Kaj. “Maasai Food Symbolism: The Cultural Connotations of Milk, Meat, and Blood in the Pastoral Maasai Diet.” Anthropos 84/1–3 (1989): 1–23.

Aktipis, Athena, Rolando de Aguiar, Anna Flaherty, Padmini Iyer, Dennis Sonkoi, and Lee Cronk. “Cooperation in an Uncertain World: For the Maasai of East Africa, Need-Based Transfers Outperform Account-Keeping in Volatile Environments.” Human Ecology 44/3 (2016): 353–364.

Aktipis, Athena C., Lee Cronk, and Rolando de Aguiar. “Risk-Pooling and Herd Survival: An Agent-Based Model of a Maasai Gift-Giving System.” Human Ecology 39/2 (2011): 131–140.

Allegretti, Antonia. “The Religious (and Political) Materiality of Development among Christian Maasai in Contemporary Tanzania.” Chapter 11 in Development in East AfricaCultural Shift in East Africa: Developments, Biographies, (Im)materialities, vol. 3, edited by Piotr Cichocki and Maciej Ząbek, 325–355. Warsaw: Institute of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, 2018.

Bagge, S. “The Circumcision Ceremony Among the Naivasha Masai.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 34 (1904): 167–169.

Barron, Joshua Robert. “Lessons from Scripture for Maasai Christianity, Lessons from Maasai Culture for the Global Church.” Priscilla Papers 33/2 (2019): 17–23.

Barron, Joshua Robert. “My God is enkAi: a reflection of vernacular theology.” Journal of Language, Culture, and Religion 2/1 (2021), forthcoming.

* Benson, Stanley. “A Study of the Religious Beliefs and Practices of the Maasai Tribe and the Implications on the Work of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania.” ThM thesis, Northwestern Lutheran Theological Seminary, 1974.

Benson, Stanley. “Christian Communication Among The Masai.” Africa Theological Journal 4 (1971): 68–75.

* Benson, Stanley. “The Conquering Sacrament: Baptism and Demon Possession Among the Maasai of Tanzania.” Africa Theological Journal 2 (1980): 52-61.

Berntsen, John L. “The Enemy Is Us: Eponymy in the Historiography of the Maasai.” History in Africa 7 (1980): 1–21.

Berntsen, John L. “The Maasai and Their Neighbors: Variables of Interaction.” African Economic History 2 (1976): 1–11.

Bingham, Kelly Suzanne. “Helplessness to Hope: Cultural Transformations for the Maasai Girl-Child.” DEd dissertation. Liberty University, 2011.

Bonini, Nathalie. “The pencil and the shepherd’s crook: Ethnography of Maasai education.” Ethnography and Education 1/3 (2006): 379–382.

Bowen, John P. “The Making of a Reflective Practitioner of Mission: What Shaped the Author of Christianity Rediscovered.” Mission Studies 30/1 (2013): 86–104.

Bowen, John P. “‘What Happened Next?’ Vincent Donovan, Thirty-five Years On.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 33/2 (2009): 79–82.

Brown, David Maughan. “The Noble Savage in Anglo-Saxon Colonial Ideology, 1950-1980: ‘Masai’ and ‘Bushmen’ in Popular Fiction.” English in Africa 10/2 (1983): 55–77.

Burton, Michael and Lorraine Kirk. “Sex Differences in Maasai Cognition of Personality and Social Identity.” American Anthropologist. New Series 81/4 (1979): 841–873.

Casucci, Brad A. “A Cold Wind: Local Maasai Perceptions of the Common Health Landscape in Narok South.” PhD Dissertation. Case Western University, 2015.

Chachage, S. L. Chachage. “Citizenship and Partitioned People in East Africa: The Case of the Wamaasai.” Africa Development / Afrique et Développement 28/1–2 (2003): 53–96.

Chieni, Telelia and Paul Spencer. “The World of Telelia: Reflections of a Maasai Woman in Matapato.” Chapter 8 in Being Maasai, edited by Thomas Spear and Richard Waller, 157–173. Eastern African Studies. Oxford: James Currey, 1993.

Coast, Ernestina. Maasai demography. PhD Dissertation. University of London, 2001.

Coast, Ernestina. “Maasai Marriage: A comparative study of Kenya and Tanzania.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 37/3 (2006): 399–419.

Coast, Ernestina. “Maasai Socioeconomic Conditions: A Cross-Border Comparison.” Human Ecology 30/1 (2002): 79–105.

Cronk, Lee. From Mukogodo to Maasai: Ethnicity and Cultural Change in Kenya. Case Studies in Anthropology. Edited by Edward F. Fischer. New York: Routledge, 2018. (First published: Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2004.)

Cronk, Lee. “From True Dorobo to Mukogodo Maasai: Contested Ethnicity in Kenya.” Ethnology 41/1 (2002): 27–49.

CrumDan (ole Kijabe), ed. Emataranyaki Enkai: Isinkolioitin Te Nkutuk e Maa. 3rd ed. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Church of Christ, 2000.

Curtin, Patricia Romero. “Generations of Strangers: The Kore of Lamu.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 18/3 (1985): 455–472.

Donovan, Vincent J. Christianity Rediscovered: An Epistle from the Masai. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1978.

Donovan, Vincent J. Christianity Rediscovered: An Epistle from the Masai. 2nd Edition. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1982.

Donovan, Vincent J. Christianity Rediscovered. 25th Anniversary Edition. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 2003.

Ekaya, Wellington N. and Jenesio I. Kinyamario. “Woodlands and Livelihoods of African Pastoralists: The Maasai of Kajiado, Kenya.” Journal of Social Sciences 5/4 (2001): 235–238.

Elness-Hanson, Beth E. Generational Curses in the Pentateuch: An American and Maasai Intercultural Analysis. Bible and Theology in Africa 24. Ed. Knut Holter. New York: Peter Lang, 2017.

Esho, Tammary, Paul Enzlin and Steven Van Wolputte. “Borders of the Present: Maasai Tradition, Modernity, and Female Identity.” Chapter 8 in Borderlands and frontiers in Africa, edited by Stephen van Wolputte, 213–233. African Studies / Afrikanische Studien.
Munster: LIT Verlag, 2013.

Floyd, Malcolm. “Equal are the Maasai and God.” Performance Research 13/3 (2008): 77–88.

Floyd, Malcolm. “Music in Enculturation and Education: A Maasai Case Study.” PhD Dissertation. University of Central England in Birmingham, 2000.

Fratkin, Elliot. “The ‘Loibon’ as Sorcerer: A Samburu ‘Loibon’ among the Ariaal Rendille, 1973-87.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 61/3 (1991): 318–333.

Galaty, John G. “Being ‘Maasai’; Being ‘People-of-Cattle’: Ethnic Shifters in East Africa.” American Ethnologist 9/1 (1982): 1–20.

Galaty, John G. “Ceremony and Society: The Poetics of Maasai Ritual.” Man, New Series 18/2 (1983): 361–382.

Galaty, John G. “‘The Eye that Wants a Person, Where Can It Not See?’ Inclusion, Exclusion & Boundary Shifters in Maasai Identity.” Chapter 9 in Being Maasai. Edited by Thomas Spear and Richard Waller. Eastern African Studies. London: James Currey, 1993

Galaty, John G. “Grounds for Appeal: Maasai Customary Claims and Conflicts.” Anthropologica 39/1-2 (1997): 113–118.

Galaty, John G. “Ha(l)ving land in common: the subdivision of Maasai group ranches in Kenya.” Nomadic Peoples 34–35 The Pastoral Land Crisis: Tenure and Dispossession in Eastern Africa (1994): 109–122.

Galaty, John G. “Land and Livestock among Kenyan Maasai: Symbolic Perspectives on Pastoral Exchange, Social Change and Inequality.” Journal of Asian and African Studies 16/1-2 (1981): 68–88.

Galaty, John G. “‘The Land Is Yours’: Social and Economic Factors in the Privatization, Sub-Division and Sale of Maasai Ranches.” Nomadic Peoples 30 (1992): 26–40.

Galaty, John G. “The Maasai Ornithorium: Tropic Flights of Avian Imagination in Africa.” Ethnology 37/3 (1998): 227–238.

Galaty, John G. “Pollution and Pastoral Antipraxis: The Issue of Maasai Inequality.” American Ethnologist 6/4 (1979): 803–816.

Galaty, John G. “Streams of Contestation: Age and Politics in Maasai Land Claims and Conflicts.” Chapter 7 in in The Politics of Age and Gerontocracy in Africa: Ethnographies of the Past & Memories of the Present, edited bt Mario I. Aguilar, 211–224. Asmara, Eritrea and Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1998.

Galaty, John G. “Transgression and Transition: Confession as a sub-text in Maasai ritual.” In Beyond Textuality: Asceticism and Violence in Anthropological Interpretation, edited by Gilles Bibeau and Ellen Corin, 193–208. Approaches to Semiotics 120. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1995.

Gneezy, Uri, Kenneth L. Leonard, and John A. List. “Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence from a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society.” Econometrica 77/5 (2009): 1637–1664.

Goldman, Mara J. and Saningo Milliary. “From critique to engagement: re-evaluating the participatory model with Maasai in Northern Tanzania.” The Journal of Political Theology 21 (2014): 406–423.

Grabe, Shelly. “Participation: Structural and relational power and Maasai women’s political subjectivity in Tanzania.” Feminism & Psychology 25/4 (2015): 528–548.

Groop, Kim. With the Gospel to Maasailand Lutheran Mission Work among the Arusha and Maasai in Northern Tanzania 1904–1973. Turku, Finland: Åbo Akademi University Printing House, 2006.

Hamilton, Claud. “The ‘E-Unoto’ Ceremony of the Masai. ” Man 63 (1963): 107–109.

Haulle, Evaristo and Delphine Njewele. “Fertility Myth of Oldoinyo Lengai and Its Impacts to the Maasai Community of Northern Tanzania.” Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania 36/2 (2015): 21–34.

Hazel, Robert. “Symbolisme latéral et schèmes ternaires. Essai sur le système idéologique des Masai d’Afrique orientale.” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines 12/1 (1978): 83–116.

Hillman, Eugene. “Inculturation & the Leaven of the Gospel.” Commonweal 18/1 (1991): 21–23.

* Hillman, Eugene. “Maasai Religion and Inculturation.” Louvain Studies17/4 (1993): 351–376

Hillman, Eugene. “The pauperization of the Maasai in Kenya.” Africa Today 41/4 (1994): 57–65.

Hillman, Eugene. Polygamy Reconsidered: African Plural Marriage and the Christian Churches. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1975

Hillman, Eugene. Toward an African Christianity: Inculturation Applied. Mahwah, New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1993. [This specifically explores an attempt of inculturation of the Gospel in Maasai contexts.]

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. Being Maasai, Becoming Indigenous: Postcolonial Politics in a Neoliberal World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. The Church of Women: Gendered Encounters Between Maasai and Missionaries. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. “Gender, Culture & the Myth of the Patriarchal Pastoralist.” Introduction in Rethinking Pastoralism in Africa: Gender, Culture & the Myth of the Patriarchal Pastoralist, edited by Dorothy L. Hodgson, 1–28. Oxford: James Currey, 2000.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. Gender, Justice, and the Problem of Culture: From Customary Law to Human Rights in Tanzania. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2017.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. “Embodying the Contradictions of Modernity: Gender and Spirit Possession among Maasai in Tanzania.” In Gendered Encounters: Challenging Cultural Boundaries and Social Hierarchies in Africa, edited by Maria Grosz-Ngaté and Omar H. Kokole, 111–130. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. “Becoming Indigenous in Africa.” African Studies Review 52/3 (2009): 1–32.

Hodgson, Dorothy L. “Images & Interventions: The Problems of Pastoralist Development.” Chapter 10 in The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa, edited by David M. Anderson and Vigdis Broch-Due, 221–239. Eastern African Studies. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2000.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. “‘My Daughter … Belongs to the Government Now’: Marriage, Maasai and the Tanzanian State.” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines 30/1 (1996): 106–123.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. Once Intrepid Warriors: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Cultural Politics of Maasai Development. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. “‘Once Intrepid Warriors’: Modernity and the Production of Maasai Masculinities.” Ethnology38/2 (1999): 121-150.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. “Pastoralism, patriarchy, and history among Maasai in Tanganyika, 1890-1940.” Chapter 4 in Rethinking Pastoralism in Africa: Gender, Culture & the Myth of the Patriarchal Pastoralist, edited by Dorothy L. Hodgson, 97–120. Oxford: James Currey, 2000.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. “Pastoralism, Patriarchy and History: Changing Gender Relations among Maasai in Tanganyika, 1890-1940.” The Journal of African History 40/1 (1999): 41–65.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. “Wayward Wives, Misfit Mothers, and Disobedient Daughters: ‘Wicked’ Women and the Reconfiguration of Gender in Africa.” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines 30/1 (1996): 1–9.

Hodgson, Dorothy Louise. “Women as Children: Culture, Political Economy, and Gender Inequality among Kisongo Maasai.” Nomadic Peoples, New Series 3/2 (1999): 115–130.

Holcomb, Timothy L. “Maasai on Mission: Understanding and Developing Missiology of Rural Maasai Believers in Narok Region, Kenya.” PhD Dissertation. Columbia University, 2020.

* Hollis, A. C. The Maasai: Their Language and Folklore. London: Oxford University Press, 1904.

Hollis, A. C. “A Note on the Masai System of Relationship and Other Matters Connected Therewith.” The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 40 (1910): 473–482.

Hollis, Claud. “The Maasai.” Journal of the Royal African Society 42/168 (1943): 119–126.

HolterKnut. “The Maasai and the Ancient Israelites: An Early 20th Century Interpretation of the Maasai in German East Africa.” Scriptura 116/2 (2017): 66–74.

Homewood, Katherine, Ernestina Coast, and Michael Thompson. “In-migrants and Exclusion in East African Rangelands: Access, Tenure and Conflict.” Africa 74/4 (2004): 567–610.

Homewood, Katherine, Patti Kristjanson, and Pippa Chenevix Trench, eds. Staying Maasai? Livelihoods, Conservation and Development. Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation. Berlin: Springer, 2008. [PDF copy]

Höschele, Stefan. “Polygamy among the Tanzanian Maasai and the Seventh-day Adventist Church: Reflections on a Missiological and Theological Problem.” Journal of Adventist Mission Studies 2/1 (2006): 44–56.

Hromnik, Cyril A. “Njoro — The ‘Dead People’ — And the Spread of Agriculture and Iron in the Basin of the Upper Nile.” Transafrican Journal of History 11 (1982): 112–135.

Hughes, Lotte. Moving the Maasai: A Colonial Misadventure. St Antony’s Series. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Huntingford, G. W. B. The Southern Nilo-Hamites. Ethnographic Survey of Africa, edited by Daryll Forde, East Central Africa 8. London: International African Institute, 1953, 1969.

Hurskainen, Arvi. “Formal Categories in Maasai Symbolism.” Chapter 4 in From water to world-making: African models and arid lands, edited by Gísli Pálsson, 59–72. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet / The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1990.

Jacobs, Alan H. “Bibliography of the Masai.” African Studies Bulletin 8/3 (1965): 40–60.

Jennings, Christian. “Beyond Eponymy: The Evidence for Loikop as an Ethnonym in Nineteenth-Century East Africa.” History in Africa 32 (2005): 199–220.

Johnson, Douglas H. and David M. Anderson. “Revealing Prophets.” Chapter 1 in Revealing Prophets: Prophecy in Eastern African History, edited by David M. Anderson and Douglas H. Johnson, 1–27. East African Studies. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1995.

Kenny, Michael G. “Mirror in the Forest: The Dorobo Hunter-Gatherers as an Image of the Other.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 51/1 (1981): 477–495.

Kibutu, Thomas Njuguna. “Development, Gender and the Crisis of Masculinity among the Maasai People of Ngong, Kenya.” PhD Dissertation. University of Leicester, 2006.

* Kiel, Christel. Christians in Máasailand: A study of the history of mission among the Máasai in the North Eastern Diocese of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania. Erlangen, Germany: Verlag der Evang.-Luth. Mission (Evangelical Lutheran Missionswerk), 1997. [NB: This is a slightly abbreviated translation of Christen in der Steppe: Die Masai-Mission der Nord-Ost-Diözese in der Lutherischen Kirche Tansanias (1996).]

Kiel, Christel. Maasai Diviners and Christianity: An Investigation of Three Different Clans of IlÓibonok in Tanzania and the Attitude of the Lutheran Church towards Them. Mission und Gregenwart — Mission Past and Present 11. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 2015.

King, Kenneth. “The Kenya Maasai and the Protest Phenomenon, 1900-1960.” The Journal of African History 12/1 (1971): 117–137.

Kipury, Naomi. “Another Maasai Story.” Anthro notes: National Museum of Natural History bulletin for teachers 11/1 (1989): 8–10, 13.

Kipury, Naomi. Oral Literature of the Maasai. Nairobi: Heinemann Educational Books, 1983. [NB: There is a also a 2020 reprint edition; I have a copy of each.]

* Kituyi, Mukhisa. Becoming Kenyans: Socio-economic Transformation of the Pastoral Maasai. Drylands Research Series. Nairobi: Acts Press, 1990.

Knowles, Joan Nancie. “Power, Influence and the Political Process among Iloitai Maasai.” PhD Dissertation. Durham University, 1993.

Kratz, Corinne and Donna Pido. “Gender, Ethnicity & Social Aesthetics in Maasai & Okiek Beadwork.” Chapter 2 in Rethinking Pastoralism in Africa: Gender, Culture & the Myth of the Patriarchal Pastoralist, edited by Dorothy L. Hodgson, 43–71. Oxford: James Currey, 2000.

ole Kulet, Jackson Lemono. The Maasai: Culture, Beliefs, Education. 2018.

Lamphear, John. “Aspects of ‘Becoming Turkana’: Interactions & Assimilation Between Maa- & Ateker-Speakers.” Chapter 4 in Being Maasai, edited by Thomas Spear and Richard Waller, 87–104. Eastern African Studies. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 1993.

Lawren, William L. “Masai and Kikuyu: An Historical Analysis of Culture Transmission.” The Journal of African History 9/4 (1968): 571–583.

Laiser, Samson Olodi. “The Understanding and Practice of the Maasai Male circumcision Ritual in a Christian Context, in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania, Northern Diocese.” MTh Dissertation. Oslo: Norwegian School of Theology, 2013.

Lechieni, Masiani and family. “The World of Masiani: Portrait of a Maasai Patriarch.” Translated and edited by Paul Spencer. nd.

Lekundayo, Godwin. The Cosmic Christ: Towards Effective Mission Among the Maasai. Regnum Studies in Mission. Oxford: Regnum Books, 2013. [reprint: Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2013.]

Lesorogol, Carolyn K. “Setting Themselves Apart: Education, Capabilities, and Sexuality among Samburu Women in Kenya.” Anthropological Quarterly 81/3 (2008): 551–577.

Little, Peter D. “Maasai Identity on the Periphery.” American Anthropologist 100/2 (1998): 444–457.

Little, Peter D. “Woman as Ol Payian (elder): The status of widows among the Il Chamus (Njemps) of Kenya.” Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 52 (1987): 1–2, 81-102.

Lolwerikoi, Michael Lmatila. “Orality and the Land: The Impact of Colonialism on Lmaa Narratives in Kenya.” PhD Dissertation. Asbury Theological Seminary, 2010.

Luck, C. Cardale. “The Origin of the Maasai and Kindred African tribes and of bornean tribes.” Journal of The East Africa and Uganda Natural History 7/26 (1926): 91–108.

Lyana, Ally Z. and Nlooto Manimbulu. “Culture and Food Habits in Tanzania and Democratic Republic of Congo.” Journal of Human Ecology 48/1 (2014): 9–21.

Lyimo-Mbowe, Hoyce Jacob. Maasai Women and the Old Testament: Towards an Emancipatory Reading. Bible and Theology in Africa 29. Edited by Knut Holter. Peter Lang, 2020.

Maguire, R. A. J. “‘il-torōbo’: Part I: Being Some Notes on the Various Types of ‘Dorobo’ Found in the Masai Reserve of Tanganyika Territory and Contiguous Districts.” Journal of the Royal African Society 27/106 (1928): 127–141.

Maguire, R. A. J. “The Maasai Penal Code.” Journal of the Royal African Society 28/109 (1928): 12–18.

Margetts, Edward L. “On the Masai E-Unoto.” Man 63 (1963): 190–192.

Massek, A. ol’Oloisolo and J. O. Sidai. Eŋeno oo lMaasai: Wisdom of Maasai. Nairobi: TransAfrica Publishers, 1974.

Massoi, Lucy Willy. “Women in Pastoral Societies and the Church in Kilosa, Tanzania.” African study monographs 56 (March 2018): 77–86.

May, Ann and Francis Ndipapa Ole Ikayo. “Wearing Illkarash: Narratives of Image, Identity and Change among Maasai Labour Migrants in Tanzania.” Development and Change 38/2 (2007): 275–298.

Mullenix, Gordon R. and John Mpaayei. “Matonyok: A Case Study of the Interaction of Evangelism and Community Development Among the Keekonyokie Maasai of Kenya.” Practical Anthropology 12/3 (1984): 327–337.

Mol, Frans. Maasai Language and Culture. Lemek, Kenya: Maasai Centre Lemek, 1996.

* Mol, Frans. Maasai Mara. 1982.

* Mol, Frans. “The Meaning and Concept in Maa of ‘Enkai’ (God).” AMECEA Apostalate to Nomads 50. Nairobi: November 20, 1981.

Mtaita, Leonard A. The Wandering Shepherds and the Good Shepherd: Contextualization as the Way of Doing Mission with the Maasai in the ELT – Pare Diocese. Mukumira Publication 11. Erlanger, Germany: Erlanger Verlag für Mission und Ökumene / Arusha, Tanzania: The Research Institute of Mukumira University College, 1998.

* ole Mpaayei, John Tompo. Inkuti pukunot oo lMaasai. Edited by A. N. [Archibald Norman] Tucker. African Annotated Texts 3. London: Oxford University Press, 1954.

Myers, Norman. “The Masai: Modernizing the Myth.” Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers 35 (1973): 147–164.

ole Nangoro, Benedict. “The Current Situation in Tanzania Maasailand.” Indigenous Affairs (1999; no. 2 – April, May, June): 25–29.

Neckebrouck, Valeer. Le Maasai et le Christianism: Le temps du grand refus. Annua Nuntia Lovaniensia XLI. Leuven: Peeters, 2002.

Neckebrouck, Valeer. Resistant Peoples: The Case of the Pastoral Maasai of East Africa. Inculturation: Working Papers on Living Faith and Cultures 14. Rome: Editrice Pontificia Universita Gregoriana, 1993.

Nkesela, Zephania Shila. “A Maasai Encounter with the Bible: Nomadic Lifestyle as a Hermeneutical Question. PhD Dissertation. Stavanger, Norway: VID Specialized University, 2017.

Nkesela, Zephania Shila. A Maasai Encounter with the Bible: Nomadic Lifestyle as a Hermeneutic Question. Bible and Theology in Africa 30. Edited by Knut Holter. New York: Peter Lang, 2020.

Nyambura, Ruth, Peter Waweru, Reuben Matheka, and Tom Nyamache. “The Economic Utility of Beads Culture of the Samburu Tribe of Kenya.” African Journal of Social Sciences 3/4 (2013): 79–84.

Ogega, Jacqueline Christine. “Faith, Gender and Peacebuilding: The roles of women of faith in peacebuilding in the conflict between the Gusii and Maasai of south-western Kenya.” PhD Dissertation. University of Bradford, 2014.

Okiya, Denis Odinga. “The Centrality of Marriage in African Religio-culture with Reference to the Maasai of Kajiado County, Kenya.” PhD Dissertation. Kenyatta University, 2008.

Orchardson, I. Q. “Origin of the Maasai.” Journal of The East Africa and Uganda Natural History 28/19 (1927): 19–23.

Potkanski, Tomasz. “Mutual Assistance among the Ngorongoro Maasai.” Chapter 9 in The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa, edited by David M. Anderson and Vigdis Broch-Due, 199–217. Eastern African Studies. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2000.

Priest, Doug, Jr. Doing Theology with the Maasai. Pasadena, California: William Carey Library, 1990.

Richter, Roland E. “Landnutzungskonflikte in den Weidegebieten Tanzanias: Die Geschichte der fortschreitenden Entrechtung der Maasai seit dem Beginn der Kolonialzeit.” Africa Spectrum 29/3 (1994): 265–284.

Rigby, Peter. Cattle, Capitalism, and Class: Ilparakuyu Maasai Transformations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.

Rigby, Peter. “Class Formation among East African Pastoralists: Maasai of Tanzania and Kenya.” Dialectical Anthropology 13/1 (1988): 63–81.

Rigby, Peter. “Ideology, Religion, and Ilparakuyo-Maasai Resistance to Capitalist Penetration.” Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines 23/3 (1989): 416–440.

Rigby, Peter. “Pastors and Pastoralists: The Differential Penetration of Christianity among East African Cattle Herders.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 23/1 (1981): 96–129.

Rigby, Peter. Persistent Pastoralists: Nomadic Societies in Transition. London: Zed Books, 1985.

Rigby, Peter. “Time and Historical Consciousness: The Case of Ilparakuyo Maasai.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 25/3 (1983): 428–456.

Rutten, Marinus M. E. M. Selling Wealth to Buy Poverty: The Process of the Individualization of Landownership Among the Maasai Pastoralists of Kajiado District, Kenya, 1890-1990. Nijmegen Studies in Development and Cultural Change 10. Saarbrücken, Germany: Verlag Breitenbach, 1992. [PDF copy]

ole Saitoti, Tepilit. The Worlds of a Maasai Warrior: An Autobiography. London: André Deutsch Limited, 1986.

Salazar, Noel B. “Imaged or Imagined? Cultural Representations and the ‘Tourismification’ of Peoples and Places.” Cahiers d’Études Africaines 49/193-194 Tourismes: La quête de soi par la pratique des autres (2009): 49–71.

Sankale, James. “Mobile Telephony and Its Influence on Gender Roles among the Maasai Women of Ngong Division Kajiado North District.” MA Thesis. University of Nairobi, 2010.

ole Sankan, S. S. Intepen e Maasai. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 1979.

ole Sankan, S. S. The Maasai. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 1971.

Shelford, Frederic. “Notes on the Masai.” Journal of the Royal African Society 9/35 (1910): 267–269.

Simat, Mary. “The Situation of the Maasai Women.” Indigenous Affairs (1999; no. 2 – April, May, June): 38–39.

Smith, Nichole M. “Gender and Livelihood Diversification: Maasai Women’s Market Activities in Northern Tanzania.” The Journal of Development Studies (2014): 13 pages.

Spear, Thomas, and Derek Nurse. “Maasai Farmers: The Evolution of Arusha Agriculture.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 25/1 (1992): 481–503.

Spear, Thomas and Richard Waller, eds. Being Maasai: Ethnicity and Identity in East Africa. East African Linguistic Studies. Oxford: James Curry, 1993.

Somjee, Sultan H. “Oral Traditions and Material Culture: An East Africa Experience.” Research in African Literatures 31/4 (2000): 97–103.

Spencer, Paul. “The Lookidongi Prophets and the Maasai: Protection Racket or Incipient State?” Africa 61/3 (1991): 334–342.

Spencer, Paul. The Maasai of Matapato: A Study of Rituals of Rebellion. International African Library. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998. [Republished in 2004 as part of the Routledge Classic Ethnographies series.]

Spencer, Paul. The Pastoral Continuum: The Marginalization of Tradition in East Africa.Oxford Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Spencer, Paul. The Samburu: A study of gerontocracy. Routledge Classic Ethnographies.
New York: Routledge, 1965, 2004.

Spencer, Paul. Time, Space, and the Unknown: Maasai configurations of power and providence. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Spencer, Paul. Youth and Experiences of Ageing among Maa: Models of Society Evoked by the Maasai, Samburu, and Chamus of Kenya. Berlin: De Gruyter Open, 2014.

Spencer, Paul and Richard Waller. “The Maasai age system and the Loonkidongi prophets.” Journal of Eastern African Studies 11/3 (2017): 460–481.

Stoks, Hans. “Apostolate to the Maasai.” In Mission Ad Gentes: The Challenge for the Church in Kenya, edited by Alexander Lucie-Smith, 37–43. Tangaza Occasional Papers 21. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2007.

Stoks, Hans. “Cultuur en Rite: een beschouwing over wezen en samenhang van beide begrippen.” PhD Dissertation. Catholic University of Nijmegen, 1989. Unpublished revision, 2012.

Stoks, Hans. “Enkai, La Réalité Humide des Maasai.” Initiations 2 (1990): 47–52.

Stoks, Hans. From ‘Apostolate to Nomads’ to Cultural Institutes. Oltepesi, Kajiado County, Kenya: Oltepesi Cultural Institute, 2018.

Stoks, Hans. “Hemelen Dauwt: ‘God’ in de Oostafrikaanse Savanne.” Prana 116 (1999–2000): 85–91.

Stoks, Hans. “Inkompatibilitäten: die heilige Beschneidung, ein Greuel?!” Mitteilungen für Anthropologie und Religionsgeschichte 16 (2004): 99–113.

Stoks, Hans. “Le Oui du Refus: Sieg der Besiegten.” In Religion und Krieg, edited bt Ansgar Häußling, Manfried L.G. Dietrich, Wilhelm Dupré and Rüdiger Schmitt, 155–180. Mitteilungen für Anthropologie und Religionsgeschichte 22. Muenster: Ugarit Verlag, 2015.

Stoks, Hans. “Louange de l’autre par la louange de soi chez les Maasaï et chez les Turkana.” In Loué Soit Je: Pratiques de l’autolouange pour tous, edited by Maris Milis, 257–262. Villeneuve-en-Perseigne, France: Le Grand Souffle, 2016.

Stoks, Hans. “Maasai Apostolate.” Chapter 8 in Paths of Ministry Among the Pastoralists, edited by G. Caramazza and A. Parise, 73–80. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2015.

Stoks, Hans. “Maasai in Context.” Mashuuru District, Kajiado County, Kenya: Oltepesi Cultural Institute, 2018.

Stoks, Hans. “Meanings and values of human cultural diversity.” Paper presented at a conference of Apostles of Jesus in Nairobi, October 2014.

Stoks, Hans. “A Perception of Reality with an East-Nilotic Tribe: Point of departure for a philosophy of perception.” In I, We and Body: First Joint Symposium of Philosophers from Africa and from the Netherlands at Rotterdam on March 10, 1989, edited bt Heinz Kimmerle, 79–92. Schriften zur Philosophie der Differenz 3. Amsterdam: Verlag B.R. Grüner, 1989.

Storrs-Fox, D. “Notes on Marriage Customs among the Masai.” Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society (1931): 183–192.

Straight, Bilinda. “Development Ideologies & Local Knowledge among Samburu Women in Northern Kenya.” Chapter 10 in Rethinking Pastoralism in Africa: Gender, Culture & the Myth of the Patriarchal Pastoralist, edited by Dorothy L. Hodgson, 227–248. Oxford: James Currey, 2000.

Straight, Bilinda. “Meisisi Enkai! Claiming Cultural Identity in Maasai Christian Worship in the Presbyterian Church of East Africa.” PhD Dissertation. University of Edinburgh, 2003.

Strang, Fred Foy. Maasai Life and Christian Practice: A Photographic Portfolio. Vero Beach, Florida: Eden Green, 2010.

* Strang, Fred Foy. Maasai Oral Literature. 1983. [We lack the rest of the bibliographic information.]

Strang, Fred Foy. “Meisisi Enkai! Claiming Cultural Identity in the Maasai Christian Worship in the Presbyterian Church of East Africa.” PhD Dissertation. University of Edinburgh, 2003.

Switzer, Heather D. “Making the Maasai Schoolgirl: Developing Modernities on the Margins.” PhD Dissertation. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2009.

Talle, Aud. “Adoption practices among the pastoral Maasai of East Africa: Enacting fertility.” Chapter 5 in Cross-Cultural Approaches to Adoption, edited by Fiona Bowie, 64–78. European Association of Social Anthropologists. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Talle, Aud. “Female and Male in Maasai Life: Aging and Fertility.” Chapter 4 in The Politics of Age and Gerontocracy in Africa: Ethnographies of the Past & Memories of the Present, edited by Mario I. Aguilar, 125–150. Asmara, Eritrea and Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1998.

Talle, Aud. “Pastoralists at the Border: Maasai Poverty & the Development Discourse in Tanzania.” Chapter 5 in The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa, edited by David M. Anderson and Vigdis Broch-Due, 106–124. Eastern African Studies. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2000.

Talle, Aud. “‘Serious Games’: Licenses and Prohibitions in Maasai Sexual Life.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 77/3 (2007): 351–370.

Talle, Aud. “Ways of Milk and Meat Among the Maasai: Gender Identity and Food Resources in a Pastoral Economy.” Chapter 5 in From water to world-making: African models and arid lands, edited by Gísli Pálsson, 73–93. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet / The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1990.

Talle, Aud. “Women as heads of houses: The organization of production and the role of women among Pastoral Maasai in Kenya.” Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 52/1–2 (1987): 50–80.

Talle, Aud. Women at a Loss: Changes in Maasai Pastoralism and Their Effects on Gender Relations. Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology 19. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, 1988.

Tidrick, Kathryn. “The Masai and their masters: a psychological study of district administration.” African Studies Review 23/1 (1980): 15–31.

Voshaar, Jan [M. H.]. Maasai: Between the Oreteti-tree and the Tree of the Cross. Ker ken Theologie in Context / Church and Theology in Context. Kampen, The Netherlands: Kok, 1998.

Voshaar, Jan [M. H.]. “Heaven and Earth: A Probe into Maasai Reality.” Studies in Interreligious Dialogue 8/2 (1998): 133–54.

Voshaar, Jan [M. H.]. “Tracing God’s walking stick in Maa: a study of Maasai society, culture and religion, a missionary approach.” Doktoraalscriptie [PhD diss.]. Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1979.

* Vossen, Rainer. “Notes on the territorial history of the Maa-speaking peoples: some preliminary remarks.” Staff seminar papers from the Dept. of History, 8. Nairobi: University of Nairobi, 1977/78.

Wagner-Glenn, Doris. Searching for a Baby’s Calabash: A Study of Arusha Maasai Fertility Songs as Crystallized Expression of Central Cultural Values. Ludwigsburg, Germany: Philipp Verlag, 1992.

Waller, Richard D. “Acceptees & Aliens: Kikuyu Settlement in Maasailand.” Chapter 11 in Being Maasai, edited by Thomas Spear and Richard Waller. Eastern African Studies. London: James Currey, 1993.

Waller, Richard D. “Interaction and Identity on the Periphery: The Trans-Mara Maasai.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 17/2 (1984): 243–284. [NB: also available as an *offprint: Interaction and Identity on the Periphery: The Trans-Mara Maasai. Boston: Boston University African Studies Center, 1984.]

Waller, Richard D. “Kidongi’s Kin: Prophecy and Power in Maasailand.” Chapter 2 in Revealing Prophets: Prophecy in Eastern African History, edited by David M. Anderson and Douglas H. Johnson, 28–64. East African Studies. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1995.

Waller, Richard D. “Pastoral Poverty in Historical Perspective.” Chapter 2 in The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa, edited by David M. Anderson and Vigdis Broch-Due, 20–49. Eastern African Studies. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2000; Oxford: James Currey, 2000; Nairobi: East African Educational Publishing, 2000.

Waller, Richard D. “They Do the Dictating & We Must Submit: The Africa Inland Mission in Maasailand.” Chapter 5 in East African Expressions of Christianity, edited by Thomas Spear and Isaria N. Kimambo, 83–126. Eastern African Studies. Oxford: James Currey, 1999; Dar Es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota; Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.

Ward, James A. and Steven Kiruswa. “Rise to Leadership: An Evaluation of African Maasai Women’s Leadership.” Journal of International Business Research 12/2 (2013): 109–120.

Westervelt, Miriam O. “A Co-Wife for the Cow: Gender Dimensions of Land Change and Livelihood Shift among Loita Maasai of Southern Kenya.” Human Ecology 46 (2018): 815–829.

Whitehouse, L. E. “Masai Social Customs.” Journal of The East Africa and Uganda Natural History 47–48 (1933): 146–153.

Willis, Justin. “Enkurma Sikitoi: Commoditization, Drink, and Power among the Maasai.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 32/2-3 (1999): 339–357.

* Winter, Jürgen Christoph. “Maasai shield patterns: a documentary source for political history.” In Zur Sprachgeschichte und Ethnohistorie in Afrika, edited bt Wilhelm Johann Georg Möhlig, Franz Rottland, and Bernd Heine, 124–347. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1977.

Youngs, Tim. “‘Why Is That White Man Pointing That Thing at Me?’ Representing the Maasai.” History in Africa 26 (1999): 427–447.

Zaal, Fred and Ton Dietz. “Of Markets, Meat, Maize & Milk: Pastoral Commoditization in Kenya.” Chapter 8 in The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa, edited by David M. Anderson and Vigdis Broch-Due, 163–198. Eastern African Studies. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2000.

Zeddy, Kauria, Murenga Hadija and Bor Eric Kiprono Bor. “Elite Women Participation in Politics among the Maasai of Narok South Sub County, Kenya: A Social Cultural Perspective.” IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science 23/3.3 (2018): 7–12.